What does metronidazole treat?
Metronidazole is a synthetic nitroimidazole that has antibacterial and antiprotozoal properties. In the treatment of bacterial and parasitic infections, metronidazole is highly successful.
Additionally, metronidazole is among the best treatments for stomach or intestinal disease. In addition to treating parasitic infections and rosacea-associated diarrhoea, metronidazole effectively treats Crohn's disease. It was first given FDA approval in 1963 and comes in topical, parenteral, and oral forms. Amebic, treating bacterial infection, and fungal infection are all properties of metronidazole. Anaerobic organisms and cells efficiently absorb unionised metronidazole.
Solely anaerobic bacteria can reduce it to its active form intracellularly. Therefore it only attacks these bacteria. When reduced, it causes damage to DNA's helix shape, which prevents bacteria from synthesising nucleic acids. This finally causes the death of bacterial cells.
Mechanism of action of metronidazole
The detailed mechanism of action of metronidazole is not fully understood. However, it is believed that the drug enters into the bacteria's cells and stops the protein formation process, which blocks nucleic acid synthesis.
Metronidazole is selective to anaerobic or microaerophilic microbes due to the redox potential of their energy transit systems, which results in nitro group elimination and the formation of hazardous metabolites. These include N-oxamic acid and acetamide, which can harm the DNA of bacteria that are capable of replicating.
Uses of Metronidazole
Metronidazole tablets and capsules are used to treat bacterial infections of the neurological system, GI tract, lungs, skin, heart, bones, and joints, as well as infections of the reproductive system. Additionally, metronidazole pills and capsules are used to treat sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Female patients with bacterial vaginosis—an infection brought on by an overabundance of specific types of dangerous bacteria in the vagina—are treated with metronidazole tablets.
Colds, the flu, and other viral diseases cannot be treated with antibiotics. Antibiotic overuse raises the likelihood that you'll get an infection later on as it is likely that it is resistant to antibiotic therapy.
Metronidazole in the treatment of bacterial vaginosis
Bacterial vaginosis (BV) usually has no symptoms or only mild ones. The likelihood of BV progressively clearing up without therapy is very high. There are several different ways to treat bacterial vaginosis (BV). Additionally, there are some activities you ought to avoid because they might encourage the condition to go away on its own.
Avoiding the use of harsh cleansers, douches, and vaginal deodorants is one of them. A condom and a water-based lubricant can be used, or you can skip sexual activity for a few weeks.
Metronidazole therapy is considered the standard treatment for bacterial vaginosis. In most cases, it eradicates vaginal infections and vaginal yeast infections. However, you should learn about the side effects of metronidazole before using this drug to treat vaginal infections.
400–500 mg twice daily for 5-7 days is the typical dosage. An alternative is a single dose of 2 grams of metronidazole. However, this may be less effective and result in greater side effects.
When taking metronidazole, some people experience nausea or may even become sick (vomit). Taking the tablets right after eating reduces the likelihood of this happening. A common side effect is a metallic taste.
Alcohol use should be avoided both during treatment with metronidazole and for 48 hours after quitting it. Alcohol and this drug interactions can result in severe nausea, vomiting, flushing, and an accelerated heart rate.
Topical metronidazole for vaginosis
If you feel unpleasant side effects with the oral use of metronidazole, you can alternatively be treated through topical use. The most common side-effect of metronidazole is a metallic taste when you take it through the oral route. Topical treatments in the form of vaginal creams and gels are believed to be as effective as antibiotics.
Care should be taken with using condoms after applying vaginal creams because it can weaken the condom and rupture may occur during sex.
Dosage of metronidazole
Adults typically take 400 mg twice or three times daily, although your dosage may be higher or lower than this. Children's dosages are determined by their age and weight. The recommended dose for you (or your child) will be specified by your doctor, and it will also be noted on the pack's label as a reminder.
If your doctor hasn't instructed you to stop, space your doses out equally throughout the day and continue taking the medication until the course is complete.
If you stop taking metronidazole before the duration that has been prescribed for you has run its course, your symptoms can come back.
If you experience symptoms of an allergic reaction, such as hives, itching, warmth, or numbness; pyrexia, muscle aches; loss of appetite, dry vagina; stuffy nose, difficulty breathing, swelling in your face or throat; or a severe skin reaction, such as a reaction that causes blistering or bleeding, seek emergency medical attention or tell your doctor.
Other Adverse effects include
Disturb balance or muscle movement
Urination problems like painful or difficult urination
The appearance of blister and ulceration in the mouth
GIT upset like stomach pain and stomach cramps, vomiting and nausea
Red or swollen gums
Metronidazole can result in potentially fatal liver disease in patients with Cockayne syndrome. Which results in upper right abdominal pain, nausea, blood in urine and jaundice. If you are experiencing these symptoms after taking metronidazole, you should seek medical advice urgently.
Precautions with metronidazole
You should avoid metronidazole in this condition.
1. Allergic to metronidazole
Avoid taking Flagyl if you have a metronidazole allergy or sensitivity. If someone is taking this drug, their doctor should keep a careful eye on them if they have liver illness. Taken with yeast infections, Flagyl may make them worse.
Pregnant women shouldn't take Flagyl during the first trimester. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) claims that little research has been done on how Flagyl affects a developing kid. Only use Flagyl during pregnancy if necessary.
3. During breastfeeding
If you conceive while using Flagyl, inform your healthcare professional who prescribed it. Flagyl can harm a nursing new-born since it goes into breast milk. When nursing, it should be administered with caution.
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