Type 1 vs Type 2 Diabetes: Causes and Symptoms

Diabetes diet

Diabetes is a chronic condition that affects the body's ability to regulate blood sugar. It may be because of lack or even absence of hormone Insulin. According to the latest figures on diabetes, 5.5 million people will have diabetes by 2030 in the United Kingdom. Unfortunately, most people know about diabetes but not its types, symptoms, prevention, and the difference between type 1 and type 2 diabetes precisely.

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease characterised by autoreactive T cell-mediated destruction of insulin-producing pancreatic beta-cells. Loss of beta-cells prompts insulin deficiency and hyperglycaemia. Type 1 diabetes (T1D0) patients ultimately require long-term insulin therapy treatment to maintain typical glycaemic control. This condition is also called "insulin-dependent diabetes."

 

Type 1 diabetes is rarer than type 2 diabetes. According to statistical research, around 5-10% of individuals with diabetes have type 1 diabetes. It can happen to anyone at any age as it isn't itself inherited, but the peak age groups are 4-7 children and 10-14 years old teens.

 

Symptoms of Type 1 diabetes

 

Signs and symptoms of diabetes appear suddenly and can turn into an emergency. You might have type 1 diabetes if you have been exposed to any of the following:

 

i. Increased thirst

ii. Irritability and other mood changes

iii. Fatigue and weakness

iv. Unintended weight loss

v. Frequent urination especially during the night

vi. Blurred vision

vii. Extreme hunger

ix. Vaginal infection

 

Diagnosing Type 1 Diabetes

 

There are two tests required for diagnosing type 1 diabetes.

First- The Primary Screening Test tells the physicians the amount of glucose circulating in a person's blood at a specific period. A blood-sugar level of 200 milligrams per decilitre suggests diabetes.

Second- The secondary test is the Glycated Haemoglobin Test or A1C.

 

When should you consult a doctor immediately?

 

When type 1 diabetes remains undiagnosed, it can become a life-threatening emergency.

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a severe condition of type 1 diabetes. By the term ketoacidosis, the body produces a high level of blood acid called Ketos.

In Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), the pancreas stops releasing insulin hormone, which results in high blood sugar levels. When the high sugar level remains constant over a period, the body's cells starve for energy, resulting in the breakdown of body fat and the person suffering the loss of weight.

 

If you or the one you love have these symptoms, you shouldn't ignore this and must take an emergency check-up.

Nausea and vomiting

Severe abdominal pain

Chest pain

Coma

DKA diagnosis most often also results in a diagnosis of type 1 diabetes.

 

Ways to treat Type 1 Diabetes

 

As mentioned above, Type 1 diabetes requires long-term insulin therapy but it can be controlled and treated by following the practice of monitoring blood sugar punctually.

 

If you have diabetes, self-testing your glucose (blood glucose) plays a significant role in dealing with your diabetes and clearing out the confusion. You can also test your glucose at home with a compact device called a glucose meter that only requires a slight drop of your blood.

Doctors recommend checking 4-10 times a day to manage your blood glucose level if you have type 1 diabetes.

 

Injecting insulin

Patients with type 1 diabetes need a long-life insulin treatment therapy in which they have to inject insulin before or after meals as prescribed by their health doctor. Insulin is injected by two methods.

First- By an insulin injection

Second- Wearable insulin pumps.

 

Types of insulin

Short-acting (regular) insulin

Rapid-acting insulin

Intermediate-acting (NPH) insulin

Long-acting insulin

 

Maintain a balanced diet

 

Maintaining a balanced diet and having a healthy routine is very important for people with type 1 diabetes. You don't have to be very restrictive about the diet but the timing of your meals and carbohydrates. Glycaemic Index (GI) helps maintain a properly balanced diet and manage the blood glucose levels of people with type 1 diabetes.

 

Exercise

 

Exercise and sports are very effective for maintaining an average blood glucose level, especially for people with type 1 diabetes. Exercise lifts your body's aversion to insulin and counters insulin resistance.

Type 2 Diabetes

 

Type 2 diabetes is only a little similar to type 1. Because in type 2 diabetes, the pancreas of the body continues its work to produce insulin, but the amount of insulin isn't sufficient for its effectiveness. Therefore the body doesn't recognise it and cannot use it to regulate the high sugar in the bloodstream.

 

Type 2 diabetes generally happens in people who have poor diets and lifestyles. It most often happens in adulthood and is also called onset adulthood diabetes.

 

Symptoms of Type 2 diabetes

 

Type 2 diabetes presents the symptoms listed below. If you are experiencing any of these symptoms, you should check with your doctor.

 

i. Increasing hunger

ii. Increased thirst

iii. Numbness in your hands or feet

iv. Fatigue

v. Itchy skin

vi. Frequent urination

vii. Blurry vision

viii. Fatigue

ix. Prevention and Cure

 

Living with diabetes is no doubt very challenging. Diabetes is a non-reversible disease which means if the blood sugar increases in the bloodstream, you might have a chance of having diabetes. But whether it is type 1 or type 2 diabetes, it can be controlled with medication supplemented by adopting a healthy lifestyle.

 

Doctors don't often recommend having a blood test to determine type 1 diabetes due to its genetic nature. But when the symptoms start rising, it becomes necessary to take the test for the diagnosis. The A1C Screening test generally detects the blood sugar in the bloodstream that a person has over the past two or three months. It is used to diagnose type 1 as well as type 2 diabetes.

 

If your body represents the symptoms of diabetes mentioned above, it's time to schedule your A1C Screening test.

 

Ways to treat Type 2 diabetes:

 

You don't require an insulin injection to manage your blood sugar level if you have Type 2 diabetes. We can treat type 1 diabetes with medication and exercise, but the doctor may recommend the use of insulin if the condition worsens. We can easily control type 1 diabetes by adopting a healthy lifestyle.

 

Balanced Diet

Avoid high fat and sugar from food and eat more vegetables, fruits, protein, and whole grains.

 

Exercise

Regular exercise is essential for everyone. But for diabetic patients, it plays a significant role in controlling the sugar in the bloodstream, which is why exercise should not be ignored.

 

Monitoring your glucose

Diabetes is a chronic condition that affects the body's ability to regulate blood sugar. It may be because of lack or even absence of hormone Insulin. According to the latest figures on diabetes, 5.5 million people will have diabetes by 2030 in the United Kingdom. Unfortunately, most people know about diabetes but not its types, symptoms, prevention, and the difference between type 1 and type 2 diabetes precisely.

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease characterized by autoreactive T cell-mediated destruction of insulin-producing pancreatic beta-cells. Loss of beta-cells prompts insulin deficiency and hyperglycaemia. Type 1 diabetes (T1D0) patients ultimately require long-term insulin therapy treatment to maintain typical glycaemic control. This condition is also called "insulin-dependent diabetes."

 

Type 1 diabetes is rarer than type 2 diabetes. According to statistical research, around 5-10% of individuals with diabetes have type 1 diabetes. It can happen to anyone at any age as it isn't itself inherited, but the peak age groups are 4-7 children and 10-14 years old teens.

 

Symptoms of Type 1 diabetes

 

Signs and symptoms of diabetes appear suddenly and can turn into an emergency. You might have type 1 diabetes if you have been exposed to any of the following:

 

i. Increased thirst

ii. Irritability and other mood changes

iii. Fatigue and weakness

iv. Unintended weight loss

v. Frequent urination especially during the night

vi. Blurred vision

vii. Extreme hunger

ix. Vaginal infection

 

Diagnosing Type 1 Diabetes

 

There are two tests required for diagnosing type 1 diabetes.

First- The Primary Screening Test tells the physicians the amount of glucose circulating in a person's blood at a specific period. A blood-sugar level of 200 milligrams per decilitre suggests diabetes.

Second- The secondary test is the Glycated Haemoglobin Test or A1C.

 

When should you consult a doctor immediately?

 

When type 1 diabetes remains undiagnosed, it can become a life-threatening emergency.

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a severe condition of type 1 diabetes. By the term ketoacidosis, the body produces a high level of blood acid called Ketos.

In Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), the pancreas stops releasing insulin hormone, which results in high blood sugar levels. When the high sugar level remains constant over a period, the body's cells starve for energy, resulting in the breakdown of body fat and the person suffering the loss of weight.

 

If you or the one you love have these symptoms, you shouldn't ignore this and must take an emergency check-up.

Nausea and vomiting

Severe abdominal pain

Chest pain

Coma

DKA diagnosis most often also results in a diagnosis of type 1 diabetes.

 

Ways to treat Type 1 Diabetes

 

As mentioned above, Type 1 diabetes requires long-term insulin therapy but it can be controlled and treated by following the practice of monitoring blood sugar punctually.

 

If you have diabetes, self-testing your glucose (blood glucose) plays a significant role in dealing with your diabetes and clearing out the confusion. You can also test your glucose at home with a compact device called a glucose meter that only requires a slight drop of your blood.

Doctors recommend checking 4-10 times a day to manage your blood glucose level if you have type 1 diabetes.

 

Injecting insulin

Patients with type 1 diabetes need a long-life insulin treatment therapy in which they have to inject insulin before or after meals as prescribed by their health doctor. Insulin is injected by two methods.

First- By an insulin injection

Second- Wearable insulin pumps.

 

Types of insulin

Short-acting (regular) insulin

Rapid-acting insulin

Intermediate-acting (NPH) insulin

Long-acting insulin

 

Maintain a balanced diet

 

Maintaining a balanced diet and having a healthy routine is very important for people with type 1 diabetes. You don't have to be very restrictive about the diet but the timing of your meals and carbohydrates. Glycaemic Index (GI) helps maintain a properly balanced diet and manage the blood glucose levels of people with type 1 diabetes.

 

Exercise

 

Exercise and sports are very effective for maintaining an average blood glucose level, especially for people with type 1 diabetes. Exercise lifts your body's aversion to insulin and counters insulin resistance.

Type 2 Diabetes

 

Type 2 diabetes is only a little similar to type 1. Because in type 2 diabetes, the pancreas of the body continues its work to produce insulin, but the amount of insulin isn't sufficient for its effectiveness. Therefore the body doesn't recognize it and cannot use it to regulate the high sugar in the bloodstream.

 

Type 2 diabetes generally happens in people who have poor diets and lifestyles. It most often happens in adulthood and is also called onset adulthood diabetes.

 

Symptoms of Type 2 diabetes

 

Type 2 diabetes presents the symptoms listed below. If you are experiencing any of these symptoms, you should check with your doctor.

 

i. Increasing hunger

ii. Increased thirst

iii. Numbness in your hands or feet

iv. Fatigue

v. Itchy skin

vi. Frequent urination

vii. Blurry vision

viii. Fatigue

ix. Prevention and Cure

 

Living with diabetes is no doubt very challenging. Diabetes is a non-reversible disease which means if the blood sugar increases in the bloodstream, you might have a chance of having diabetes. But whether it is type 1 or type 2 diabetes, it can be controlled with medication supplemented by adopting a healthy lifestyle.

 

Doctors don't often recommend having a blood test to determine type 1 diabetes due to its genetic nature. But when the symptoms start rising, it becomes necessary to take the test for the diagnosis. The A1C Screening test generally detects the blood sugar in the bloodstream that a person has over the past two or three months. It is used to diagnose type 1 as well as type 2 diabetes.

 

If your body represents the symptoms of diabetes mentioned above, it's time to schedule your A1C Screening test.

 

Ways to treat Type 2 diabetes:

 

You don't require an insulin injection to manage your blood sugar level if you have Type 2 diabetes. We can treat type 1 diabetes with medication and exercise, but the doctor may recommend the use of insulin if the condition worsens. We can easily control type 1 diabetes by adopting a healthy lifestyle.

 

Balanced Diet

Avoid high fat and sugar from food and eat more vegetables, fruits, protein, and whole grains.

 

Exercise

Regular exercise is essential for everyone. But for diabetic patients, it plays a significant role in controlling the sugar in the bloodstream, which is why exercise should not be ignored.

 

Monitoring your glucose

Keep a check on your blood glucose level regularly. It keeps you updated on your diabetes and helps you manage your diet and exercise accordingly. Furthermore, by regular checking, you will find the best way to manage your diabetes.

To learn more about diabetes, click here. 
To take a diabetes blood test, click here. 

References and Citation

Life Line Screening (n.d.). What's the difference between type 1 and type 2 diabetes? [online] www.lifelinescreening.com. Available at: https://www.lifelinescreening.com/health-education/diabetes/type-1-type-2-diabetes?sourcecd=WNAT003

Diabetes UK (2019). Diabetes Statistics. [online] diabetes UK. Available at: https://www.diabetes.org.uk/professionals/position-statements-reports/statistics

CDC (2021). What Is Type 1 Diabetes? [online] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/basics/what-is-type-1-diabetes.html

Mayo Clinic Staff (2018). Blood sugar testing: Why, when, and how. [online] Mayo Clinic. Available at: https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/diabetes/in-depth/blood-sugar/art-20046628

Dowse, P. (n.d.). What is the Glycaemic Index of sugar? [online] www.sugarnutritionresource.org. Available at: https://www.sugarnutritionresource.org/news-articles/what-is-the-glycemic-index-of-sugar

Pippitt, K., Li, M. and Gurgle, H.E. (2016). Diabetes Mellitus: Screening and Diagnosis. American Family Physician, [online] 93(2), pp.103–109. Available at: https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0115/p103.html .

Type 2 Diabetes Screening. [online] WebMD. Available at: https://www.webmd.com/diabetes/type-2-diabetes-screening.

OK Healthy Living (2020). 9 Magic Oils for Diabetes. Available at https://www.okhealthyliving.com/

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