Prostate cancer is the most common non-cutaneous cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide.
Prostate cancer is the cancer of the prostate gland located in front of the rectum. The prostate gland secretes a particular type of liquid that helps protect the sperm. Therefore, an enlarged prostate gland may cause erectile dysfunction.
According to research conducted by Cancer Research UK, 53 thousand new cases of prostate cancer were diagnosed, and 11 thousand deaths resulted. The incidence of prostate cancer increases with age, and more cases occur over 50 years of age.
High risk of prostate cancer
Prostate cancer is considered to be one of the curable forms of cancer especially if the diagnosis has been made fairly early. It may be useful to know the following early sign and symptoms of prostate cancer:
This type of cancer is mostly found to have developed in people over 50 years of age. At this stage of life, the prostate gland is enlarged, leading to benign prostatic hyperplasia, which is an early prostate cancer symptom. It may cause pain especially leading to trouble urinating. Later on, benign prostatic hyperplasia may produce cancer cells in the prostate gland, leading to advanced prostate cancer.
Genetic history is a high-risk factor for every cancer. People having prostate cancer in their families have an increased incidence of prostate cancer.
Exposure to certain chemicals
Exposure to chemicals such as pesticides and insecticides may produce a higher number of cancer cells and result in advanced prostate cancer.
Prostate Cancer Symptoms:
Prostate cancer may appear as focal nodules within the prostate gland. Patients presented with the following warning signs of prostate cancer should consider getting tested.
Enlarged Prostate Gland
Benign prostate hyperplasia is a benign condition in which the prostate gland is enlarged, and trouble in urination occurs. This enlargement occurs because of unusual growth and may lead to cancer.
It causes pain or discomfort when you are sitting. The symptoms related to prostate gland enlargement don't mean that you have prostate cancer, but it is vital to get them checked. A digital rectum examination test is performed by the doctor to check the status of the prostate gland.
Trouble with Urination
Trouble urinating is decreased force in the stream of urine. When you have persistent symptoms related to urination, it may be a warning sign of prostate cancer.
Prostate cancer may present with symptoms of having trouble urination. It is essential to tell your doctor about any related trouble so appropriate tests can be conducted to find out if the cells are cancerous or inflamed.
Symptoms like erectile dysfunction are related to an advanced stage of prostate cancer. Prostate gland secrets a special type of liquid that helps to provide nutrition to our sperm and make them alive. In the presence of prostate cancer, the normal cells of the prostate gland are replaced by cancer cells which become unable to secrete the fluid and nourish the seminal fluid. A man with advanced prostate cancer may experience painful ejaculation. The affected person may contain blood in semen.
To learn more about erectile dysfunction, see our information page here.
Urinary symptoms are alarming signs of prostate cancer. Urinary symptoms appear during early prostate cancer stages.
This includes dribbling or interrupted flow of urine. Painful or burning sensation during urination and difficulty in emptying the bladder. Some patients have experienced blood in the urine during their early stages of prostate cancer. The growing tumour destroys the prostate gland cells, and the cancer cells may be excreted in the urine.
Other Symptoms include
a. Rectum pain
b. Rectal Bleeding occurring at night
c. Frequent urge to urinate
d. Difficulty in emptying the urinary bladder
e. Weight loss
Laboratory findings of Prostate Cancer
Serum tumour markers for prostate cancer
The cancer cells of the prostate gland produce PSA. Measurement of blood PSA helps to detect prostate cancer. PSA may be elevated up to 4.0 ng/ml in the blood.
Take a blood test if you have any doubts today, see our range of health tests here.
Prostate gland biopsy
The standard gold method for the detection of prostate cancer is a transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy. A biopsy is helpful in metastatic prostate cancer.
Imaging for prostate cancer
c. Bone scan
Treatment options for prostate cancer
The optimal treatment for patients with early prostate cancer remains controversial. Patients need to be advised of all treatment options before going to any intervention. The goal of initial treatment is to reduce the chance of metastasis of cancer. The treatment decisions are made based on the stage of cancer. At this stage of cancer, the treatment may be based on a symptomatic diagnosis.
Radical prostatectomy is advised for the cancer-affected prostate gland. During this procedure, the seminal vesicles and prostate of the vas defence are removed. It prevents cancer from recurrence. Ideal patients for surgical treatment include healthy patients. Patients with advanced prostate cancer are rarely selected for radical prostatectomy.
Radiation therapy for prostate cancer can be delivered by a variety of techniques. Radiation therapy reduces the chance of death. Newer radiation methods with charged particles may improve local control rates of prostate cancer. Radiation therapy delivers a dosage of charged particles to kill cancer cells.
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