What is Glucophage?
An oral diabetes medication called metformin aids in blood sugar regulation. Adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus can improve blood sugar control by taking metformin in addition to a healthy diet and regular exercise. Patients with type 1 or insulin-dependent diabetes cannot benefit from metformin because they cannot produce their own insulin. Your blood sugar may drop too low if you take Glucophage along with insulin or other diabetes medications. Each and every diabetic has the potential to experience low blood sugar (hypoglycemia). Headache, hunger, sweating, confusion, irritability, dizziness, or a trembling sensation are some symptoms. Always have a source of sugar on hand in case your blood sugar drops. Orange juice, glucose gel, candies, or milk are examples of sugar sources. Use an injection if you have severe hypoglycemia and are unable to consume anything.
The gastrointestinal tract quickly absorbs metformin, and the maximum plasma concentrations happen 1-2 hours after oral administration. Although there is a significant amount of interindividual variability in the rate of absorption, the extent of absorption (AUC) increases proportionally to the dose administered.
Food does not reduce bioavailability. Metformin does not undergo hepatic metabolism (no cytochrome P450 involvement) and is excreted unchanged in the urine. Metformin renal clearance (CLr) is inversely correlated with creatinine clearance (CLcr). As renal function declines, CLcr declines and the half-life of metformin lengthens. There are no variations in the pharmacokinetics of single- and multiple-dose administration in patients with normal renal function.
Elderly: There are no differences in the pharmacokinetics of single- and multiple-dose administration in elderly subjects with normal renal function.
Renal Impairment: In proportion to the severity of renal impairment, metformin's half-life is prolonged and its AUC is raised. less than 60 mL per minute of creatinine clearance). Patients with mild to moderate renal impairment (CLcr= 60-90 mL/min) don't need their dosage adjusted. When undergoing or just before an imaging procedure that uses iodinated contrast materials, metformin should be stopped because doing so may cause an abrupt change in renal function. Metformin serum concentrations are unaffected by dialysis.
Hepatic Impairment: In patients with hepatic impairment, the pharmacokinetics of metformin are unaffected. Patients with mild to moderate hepatic impairment do not need a dosage adjustment.
In patients with severe liver disease, metformin should be used with caution because higher serum concentrations of the drug may increase the risk of lactic acidosis. When undergoing or just before an imaging procedure that uses iodinated contrast materials, metformin should be stopped because doing so may cause an abrupt change in renal function.
Metformin does not significantly interact with other widely prescribed drugs like acarbose, ranitidine, furosemide, nifedipine, or glipizide.
Statins (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors) may have higher plasma concentrations after taking metformin. Although the clinical significance of this interaction is unknown, prescribing these drugs together is not recommended.
The concurrent use of metformin and cationic medications (like cimetidine) that are excreted by tubular secretion may cause metformin plasma concentrations to rise.
Metformin should not be combined with cationic drugs that are excreted through tubular secretion, such as ranitidine, cimetidine, quinine, procainamide, and trimethoprim.
Oral contraceptive plasma concentrations may rise in response to metformin.
The gastrointestinal side effects of metformin that are most frequently reported are flatulence, indigestion, nausea, and vomiting. The majority of the time, these side effects appear at the start of therapy and go away with continued treatment.
Dizziness, headaches, rashes on the skin, and weakness are additional, less frequent side effects.
Metformin use may occasionally result in the serious side effect of lactic acidosis. A medical emergency like lactic acidosis needs to be attended to in a hospital. Abdominal pain, muscle pain, shortness of breath, an irregular heartbeat, and a feeling of being cold are all signs of lactic acidosis. Call your doctor right away if you experience any of these side effects while taking metformin.
Dosage and Administration
Metformin should be taken at a starting dose of 500 mg twice daily with meals. The dose can be increased and administered in divided doses up to 2,000 mg per day.
Take the missed metformin dose as soon as you remember it if you forget to take it. Skip the missed dose and carry on with your regular dosing schedule if it is almost time for your next dose. To make up for a missed dose, do not take a second one.
Hypoglycemia, lactic acidosis, and gastrointestinal distress are signs of metformin overdose.
Dial your physician or a poison control center right away if you believe you have taken too much metformin.
The recommended storage temperature for metformin is 15–30 °C (59–86 °F). Keep this medication in a container that is tightly closed. shield from moisture and light. Keep out of the bathroom. Keep children and pets away from all medications. Unless specifically instructed to do so, avoid flushing medications down the toilet or pouring them into drains. When the product is no longer needed or has expired, dispose of it properly. For more information on how to properly dispose of your product, speak with your pharmacist or the neighborhood waste management company.