The skin is an anatomical and the outermost covering of the body. It is also the body's largest organ. Due to the large surface area of the skin, it is exposed to a huge variety of chemical exposures, fungal infections and bacterial infections, which lead to skin damage and ultimately result in skin diseases. Most skin diseases are related to genetics, but external factors can also play a role in causing skin conditions. Some skin diseases may also indicate a deeper health issue such as skin cancer.
Skin diseases and conditions subsidise 1.79% of a universal infection load worldwide. British Skin Foundation reported that 60% of U.K. people are experiencing or previously had passed through skin diseases.
5 Types Of Common Skin Diseases
Acne is a skin disease where the hair follicle becomes closed or blocked by dead skin cells and oil. Acne leads to the appearance of whiteheads, blackheads, and pimples on the face. The blocked skin follicles are usually formed due to the oil secreted from ducts in the skin, bacterial infection or dust and pollution from the air.
Depending on the type and severity of acne, it can cause sensitive distress and blemishes on the skin. Acne usually leaves dark spots on the affected areas. A proper skincare routine can also help treat facial redness, itchy skin and other symptoms of acne.
However, you may consult a healthcare provider and the prior you start medication, the easier it is to treat acne.
Signs and symptoms of acne include:
- pus-filled bumps (cystic lesions)
- Pain solid lumps under the skin (nodules)
Following are the main factors that can trigger acne:
- Sebum (excess oil) production
- Blocked skin follicles
- Bacterial infections
- Hormonal changes
Medicated creams that reduce the secretion of oil from glands and swelling can treat acne. If you have tried non-prescribed medication to treat acne and it doesn't work, you should consult with a dermatologist. Over-the-counter skin care products may contain harsh chemicals that will worsen your skin conditions.
A healthcare provider may prescribe you suitable medications depending on your age, type of acne, and severity. The treatment options include lotion, cream, or medicine to cope with acne.
To learn more about acne and see available treatments, click here.
Rosacea is typically a non-contagious skin condition that causes blushing or flushing on the skin's surface and the appearance of apparent pus-filled bumps and veins on your face. These signs and side effects might erupt for weeks to months and afterwards disappear for some time.
It commonly affects women, and middle-aged white women are more prone to this skin disease.
- Pus-filled bumps
- Red-hot sensations
- Optical infections
- Visible veins
The reason behind rosacea is debated. However, it might be because of:
- An overactive immune system
- Natural factors.
There is no known cause or reason for why it happens, but treatment and medications are prescribed to control severe symptoms.
Vitiligo is a chronic, non-contagious skin disease that can affect any gender, age, or ethnic group. In this disease, the individual's skin loses pigmentation causing skin discolouration or patches over the skin. If it remains untreated, it can rapidly spread all over the body. Vitiligo can also make your skin more sensitive to sun exposure.
It is reported that only 0.5% - 2% population of the world suffers from this skin disease.
Vitiligo starts escalating with just a tiny spot of unremarkable paler pigment on the skin. But by the passing of time, it becomes an entirely white patch. A red inflammatory edge can be seen around the patch at some time, which grounds the itchiness.
The skin cell known as melanocytes produces melanin responsible for the pigment of the skin. The production of melanin is what determines the skin colour of an individual. Vitiligo skin condition is caused when there is a lack of melanin production, resulting in white patches of skin.
There is no cure for vitiligo. Medicines are accessible, including fair treatment and topical medicine. A person might also be prescribed surgery.
Lupus is an autoimmune disorder that can cause pain and inflammation. Lupus can also cause significant strength and muscle function loss that may lead to disease progression and disability.
9 out of 10 individuals with Lupus are females, and females with dark skin are multiple times more bound to get it.
The symptoms of Lupus vary from person to person, depending on several factors. However, the following are the core symptoms a person with lupus skin disease or condition suffers:
- butterfly rash across the nose and cheek area
- Scars due to rashes on the skin
- Chest pain while inhaling
- Feeling sick for a while after exposure to the sun
- Scalp hair loss
- Joint pain
- Sore in mouth and nose
The exact reason behind Lupus is unknown. Scientists believed that people with Lupus might have a gene triggered by some factors that enhance the symptoms. These triggers might be activated by:
- Prolonged sunlight exposure
- Wrong medication
There are many potential ways to alleviate Lupus symptoms. Lupus makes the diagnosis more reliable. The symptoms of Lupus can be relieved with the proper treatment.
Ringworm Dermatophytosis or Tinea
A fungal infection characterises Ringworm or Tinea skin disease. It is termed a "ringworm" because of the appearance of small and circular red bumps on the skin. It is a contagious skin disease, but it can be easily treated.
Signs and symptoms of Ringworm may include:
- Presence of scaly round ring rash on the skin
- Itchiness in the red rash
- Slightly expedition of the rashes
- On white skin, it appears in reddish and purple colour
- On dark skin, it seems brown, grey, or even black
Ringworm is an infectious and contagious skin disease brought by a fungus dermatophytes that eats keratin (a type of protein found in nails, hair and skin). It tends to spread in the below-mentioned ways:
- Human-to-human contact
Ringworm can spread by direct skin-to-skin contact with an infected person
- Animal to-human contact
Ringworm can also spread by contact with an animal having Ringworm on the skin. We can easily get it while petting our pets.
- Object to human contact
Ringworm can also spread by touching a surface or an object which might have been in contact with an infected person or animal.
If over-the-counter available products don't work, you might require effective antifungal medication. For example, applying a cream, lotion, or treatment to the infected skin. If the symptoms get worse to manage, your doctor might prescribe antifungal pills.
To learn more information about skincare and treatments, see our information page here.
References and citations
Karimkhani, C., Dellavalle, R.P., Coffeng, L.E., Flohr, C., Hay, R.J., Langan, S.M., Nsoesie, E.O., Ferrari, A.J., Erskine, H.E., Silverberg, J.I., Vos, T. and Naghavi, M. (2017). Global Skin Disease Morbidity and Mortality. JAMA Dermatology, [online] 153(5), p.406. Available at: https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamadermatology/fullarticle/2604831.
Foundation, B.S. (n.d.). About – British Skin Foundation. [online] knowyourskin.britishskinfoundation.org.uk. Available at: https://knowyourskin.britishskinfoundation.org.uk/about/#:~:text=Sixty%20percent%20of%20people%20in.
Krüger, C. and Schallreuter, K.U. (2012). A review of the worldwide prevalence of vitiligo in children/adolescents and adults. International Journal of Dermatology, 51(10), pp.1206–1212.
Mayo Clinic 2018, Ringworm (body) - Symptoms and causes, Mayo Clinic.
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